Wu QY, Sheehan JP, Tsiang M, Lentz SR, Birktoft JJ, Sadler JE.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 1;88(15):6775-9.
Thrombin is a serine protease that acts as a procoagulant by clotting fibrinogen and activating platelets and as an anticoagulant by activating protein C in a thrombomodulin-dependent reaction. Fibrinogen and thrombomodulin bind competitively to an anion-binding exosite on thrombin. We prepared recombinant normal human thrombin and mutant thrombins with single amino acid substitutions in order to localize and distinguish the fibrinogen- and thrombomodulin-binding sites. Normal and mutant thrombins had similar amidolytic activity. Thrombin K52E had approximately 2.5-fold increased protein C-activating activity but only approximately 17% of normal fibrinogen-clotting activity. Thrombin R70E had normal fibrinogen-clotting activity but only approximately 7% of normal protein C-activating activity. Thrombin R68E had markedly reduced activity in both assays. Decreased activation of protein C correlated with decreased binding affinity for thrombomodulin, and ability to activate platelets correlated directly with fibrinogen-clotting activity. These results demonstrate that thrombins with predominantly anticoagulant or procoagulant activity can be created by mutagenesis and that thrombomodulin- and fibrinogen-binding sites on thrombin may overlap but are not identical.
READ MORE: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1650482